Hypnosis and Trance Work Articles

Hypnosis Research Articles


Hypnosis & Weight Management

A meta-analysis that examined the outcomes of people in 18 separate studies found that patients who received cognitive behavioral therapy plus hypnosis for disorders such as obesity, insomnia, anxiety and hypertension showed greater improvement than 70 percent of the patients who received psychotherapy alone. After publication of these findings, a task force of the American Psychological Association validated hypnosis as an adjunct procedure for the treatment of obesity.

Hypnosis has been used in psychotherapy—both in psychodynamic or cognitive-behavioral oriented therapy. In the former case, hypnosis is used to promote relaxation, enhance imagery, and generally loosen the flow of free associations (some psychodynamic theorists consider hypnosis to be a form of adaptive regression or regression in the service of the ego). However, there is little evidence from controlled outcome studies that hypnoanalysis or hypnotherapy are more effective than nonhypnotic forms of the same treatment. By contrast, a 1995 meta-analysis by Kirsch and colleagues showed a significant advantage when hypnosis is used to complement cognitive-behavioral therapy for a number of problems, including anxiety and hypertension. In an era of evidence-based mental health care, it will be increasingly important for practitioners who use hypnosis to document, quantitatively, the clinical benefits of doing so.

In the Kirsch study (mentioned above in the Psychotherapy section), the prospects for hypnosis appeared to be especially favorable in the treatment of obesity, where individuals in the hypnosis group continued to lose weight even after formal treatment had ended. In one study, for example, women who received personally tailored hypnotic suggestions for specific food aversions, in the context of a traditional self-monitoring and goal-setting treatment, lost approximately twice as much weight as a comparison group. This comparison group received the behavioral treatment alone (no hypnotic suggestion).

Hypnosis & the Immune System

Hypnosis has shown effective results in helping to boost the immune system and promote overall health and well being.  In a study conducted by Leslie Walker of Hull University, 63 patients with newly diagnosed cancers were studied. The patients were split into three groups. One group was given relaxation tapes, another received the tapes plus hypnotherapy to reinforce their effect. The third received neither.

Walker followed up the patients 13 years after diagnosis. “We found that the patients who had received relaxation or relaxation and hypnotherapy lived significantly longer,” he says. On average, patients in the relaxation and hypnotherapy group lived an average of 10.7 years after diagnosis, patients who used only the tapes lived 8.7 years and patients with neither lived 7.8 years.

Hypnosis & Stress

“In a study of medical students under exam-time stress, investigators found that those who received “hypnotic-relaxation training’ did not show the same reduction in key immune system components that their untrained counterparts did. The researchers looked at 33 medical and dental students during exam time, the self-hypnosis students launched stronger immune responses compared with students who did not learn the relaxation technique. The more often students practiced the self-hypnosis strategy, the stronger their immune response.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2001

Psychosocial treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: a practice-friendly review of outcome research.
Solomon SD, Johnson DM., Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA

A review of the treatment research indicates that several forms of therapy appear to be useful in reducing the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Strongest support is found for the treatments that combine cognitive and behavioral techniques. Hypnosis, psychodynamic, anxiety management, and group therapies also may produce short-term symptom reduction. Still unknown is whether any approach produces lasting effects. Imaginal exposure to trauma memories and hypnosis are techniques most likely to affect the intrusive symptoms of PTSD, while cognitive and psychodynamic approaches may address better the numbing and avoidance symptoms. Treatment should be tailored to the severity and type of presenting PTSD symptoms, to the type of trauma experience, and to the many likely co morbid diagnoses and adjustment problems. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Clin Psychol. 2002 Aug;58(8):947-59

The use of imagery suggestions during administration of local anesthetic in pediatric dental patients.
Peretz B, Bimstein E.,Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Hebrew University, Hadassah School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of suggestion before and during the administration of local anesthesia to children. These effects were then observed and correlated with social, behavioral and dentally related variables. Eighty children between the ages of three and sixteen years and who required at least one injection of local anesthesia were monitored. Retrospective examinations of their dental records provided the information regarding the behavior and dental treatment histories of the patients. All other data were provided through observation during the dental treatment phase. During the first treatment session, before the injection, each child was asked to select a favorite, pleasant memory or image. Where children had difficulty in identifying an image, one was proposed by the dentist. After an image had been chosen, the patients were asked to concentrate on the image and to visualize it during the procedure. The majority of children had chosen their own images, and significantly visualized the same images throughout the injection procedures. Image selection and visualization had no association with gender, age, the parent’s assessment of the child’s behavior, previous dental experience, behavior (both past and present) or, management techniques (both past and present). We conclude that imaging techniques may be successfully utilized in the administration of local anesthesia to young children (from three years of age) in an effort to mitigate untoward, pain-related stress.
ASDC J Dent Child. 2000 Jul-Aug;67(4):263-7, 231

Psychosocial and immune effects of self-hypnosis training for stress management throughout the first semester of medical school.
Whitehouse WG, Dinges DF, Orne EC, Keller SE, Bates BL, Bauer NK, Morahan P, Haupt BA, Carlin MM, Bloom PB, Zaugg L, Orne MT., Institute of Pennsylvania Hospital, University of Pennsylvania Medical School, Philadelphia, USA.

This study was a 19-week prospective conducted to determine the effectiveness of a self-hypnosis/relaxation intervention to relieve symptoms of psychological distress and moderate immune system reactivity to examination stress in 35 first-year medical students. Twenty-one subjects were randomly selected for training in the use of self-hypnosis as a coping skill and were encouraged to practice regularly and to maintain daily diary records related to mood, sleep, physical symptoms, and frequency of relaxation practice. An additional 14 subjects received no explicit training in stress-reduction strategies, but completed similar daily diaries. Self-report psychosocial and symptom measures, as well as blood draws, were obtained at four time points: orientation, late semester, examination period, and postsemester recovery. It was found that significant increases in stress and fatigue occurred during the examination period, paralleled by increases in counts of B lymphocytes and activated T lymphocytes, PHA-induced and PWM-induced blastogenesis, and natural killer cell (NK) cytotoxicity. No immune decreases were observed. Subjects in the self-hypnosis condition reported significantly less distress and anxiety than their nonintervention counterparts, but the two groups did not differ with respect to immune function. Nevertheless, within the self-hypnosis group, the quality of the exercises (ie, relaxation ratings) predicted both the number of NK cells and NK activity. It was concluded that stress associated with academic demands affects immune function, but immune suppression is not inevitable. Practice of self-hypnosis reduces distress, without differential immune effects. However, individual responses to the self-hypnosis intervention appear to predict immune outcomes.
Psychosom Med. 1996 May-Jun;58(3):249-63

Premedication in children: hypnosis versus midazolam.
Calipel S, Lucas-Polomeni MM, Wodey E, Ecoffey C., Department of Anesthesiology and Surgical Intensive Care 2, Hopital Pontchaillou, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes, France.

BACKGROUND: The main objectives of premedication in children are to facilitate the separation from the parents, to reduce preoperative anxiety, to smooth the induction of anesthesia and to lower the risk of postoperative behavioral disorders. The most common technique is sedative premedication with midazolam. Hypnosis enables a state of relaxation to be achieved and has never been evaluated as a premedication technique. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of hypnosis on anxiety and perioperative behavioral disorders versus midazolam. METHODS: Fifty children from 2 to 11 years of age were randomized into two groups: group H received hypnosis as premedication; group M were given 0.5 mg x kg(-1) midazolam orally, 30 min before surgery. Preoperative anxiety was evaluated using the Modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS) score when arriving in the department (T1), when entering the operating room (T2), and when fitting the facemask (T3). Postoperative behavioral disorders were evaluated using the Posthospitalization Behavioral Questionnaire (PHBQ) at days 1, 7 and 14. RESULTS: The two groups showed no significant difference preoperatively with the PHBQ: (M) 21 (17-25) vs (H) 20 (8-25) and mYPAS score: (M) 28 (23-75) vs (H) 23 (23-78). The number of anxious children was less during induction of anesthesia in the hypnosis group (T3: 39% vs 68%) (P < 0.05). Postoperatively, hypnosis reduced the frequency of behavior disorders approximately by half on day 1 (30% vs 62%) and day 7 (26% vs 59%). CONCLUSIONS: Hypnosis seems effective as premedication in children scheduled for surgery. It alleviates preoperative anxiety, especially during induction of anesthesia and reduces behavioral disorders during the first postoperative week.
Paediatr Anaesth. 2005 Apr;15(4):275-81

Chronic stress and susceptibility to skin cancer.
Saul AN, Oberyszyn TM, Daugherty C, Kusewitt D, Jones S, Jewell S, Malarkey WB, Lehman A, Lemeshow S, Dhabhar FS., Colleges of Medicine and Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that chronic stress or UV radiation independently suppress immunity. Given their increasing prevalence, it is important to understand whether and how chronic stress and UV radiation may act together to increase susceptibility to disease. Therefore, we investigated potential mediators of a stress-induced increase in emergence and progression of UV-induced squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: SKH1 mice susceptible to UV-induced tumors were unexposed (naive, n = 4) or exposed (n = 16) to 2240 J/m2 of UVB radiation three times a week for 10 weeks. Half of the UVB-exposed mice were left nonstressed (i.e., they remained in their home cages) and the other half were chronically stressed (i.e., restrained during weeks 4-6). UV-induced tumors were measured weekly from week 11 through week 34, blood was collected at week 34, and tissues were collected at week 35. mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-12p40, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-4, IL-10, CD3epsilon, and CCL27/CTACK, the skin T cell-homing chemokine, in dorsal skin was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. CD4+, CD8+, and CD25+ leukocytes were counted using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Stressed mice had a shorter median time to first tumor (15 versus 16.5 weeks, difference = 1.5 weeks, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -3.0 to 3.3 weeks; P = .03) and reached 50% incidence earlier than controls (15 weeks versus 21 weeks). Stressed mice also had lower IFN-gamma ( mean = 0.03 versus mean = 0.07, difference = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.004 to 0.073; P = .02), CCL27/CTACK (mean = 101 versus mean = 142, difference = 41, 95% CI = 8.1 to 74.4; P = .03), and CD3epsilon (mean = 0.18 versus mean = 0.36, difference = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.30; P = .007) gene expression and lower numbers of infiltrating CD4+ cells (mean = 9.40 versus mean = 13.7, difference = 4.3, 95% CI = 2.36 to 6.32; P = .008) than nonstressed mice. In addition, stressed mice had more regulatory/suppressor CD25+ cells infiltrating tumors and more CD4+ CD25+ cells in circulation (mean = 0.36 versus mean = 0.17, difference = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.005 to 0.38; P = .03) than nonstressed mice. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic stress increased susceptibility to UV-induced squamous cell carcinoma in this mouse model by suppressing type 1 cytokines and protective T cells and increasing regulatory/suppressor T cell numbers
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Dec 7;97(23):1760-7

Stress susceptibility predicts the severity of immune depression and the failure to combat bacterial infections in chronically stressed mice.

Kiank C, Holtfreter B, Starke A, Mundt A, Wilke C, Schutt C., Department of Immunology, University of Greifswald, Germany.

Chronic psychological stress has been suggested to play a role in disorders in which the immune system unexpectedly fails to respond in a protective manner. Chronic combined acoustic and restraint stress compromises the anti-bacterial defense mechanisms of female BALB/c mice. The immunodeficiency is characterized by an apoptotic loss of lymphocytes, reduced ex vivo-inducibility of TNF but increased inducibility of IL10, reduced T-cell proliferation, and impaired phagocyte functions. Stressed mice develop depression-like behavior that was monitored by a stress severity score (SSS). Besides a strain (BALB/c>CBA) and gender (male>female) dependent susceptibility to chronic stress, inbred mice have an individual coping ability. Importantly, the individual SSS strongly correlates with Escherichia coli dissemination after infection as well as with IL10-inducibility and circulating corticosterone levels of each animal.
Brain Behav Immun. 2005 Dec

A cross-sectional study on the relationship of job stress with natural killer cell activity and natural killer cell subsets among healthy nurses.
Morikawa Y, Kitaoka-Higashiguchi K, Tanimoto C, Hayashi M, Oketani R, Miura K, Nishijo M, Nakagawa H., Department of Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa, Japan. ymjr@kanazawa-med.ac.jp

The present study investigated the effects of job stress on cellular immune function, such as NK cell activity and NK cell subsets. The participants were 61 female nurses aged 23-59, who worked in a public psychiatric hospital in Ishikawa, Japan. Each subject completed the Nursing Job Stressor Scale (NJSS) and their NK cell activity and lymphocyte surface antigens (CD16+56+) were evaluated as immune system parameters. The NJSS has seven subscales: conflict with other nursing staff, nursing role conflict, conflict with physicians or autonomy, conflict with death or dying, quantitative work load, qualitative work load and conflict with patients. Factors influencing NK cell activity, and the proportion and cell counts of CD16+56+ lymphocytes were evaluated. Increase in quantitative work load significantly decreased NK cell activity. Conversely, no linear relationship was observed between qualitative work load and immunological variables, with the highest percentage of CD16+56+ lymphocytes observed among participants in the medium work load group. The other five NJSS subscales did not relate to immune parameters. In conclusion, the results suggest that perceived job strains, particularly quantitative work load, decreased NK cell function.
J Occup Health. 2005 Sep;47(5):378-83

Gender specific effects of a mild stressor on alcohol cue reactivity in heavy social drinkers.
Nesic J, Duka T., Department of Psychology, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK.

RATIONALE: Stress plays an important role in the development and maintenance of alcohol-abuse. Some of the effects of stress on alcohol-related behaviours, however, appear to be gender-dependent. AIM: The present study set out to examine the effects of stress on feelings of desire for alcohol, skin conductance response and alcohol consumption in the presence of alcohol-related cues in relation to gender. Participants were heavy non-dependent alcohol drinkers. METHODS: Thirty-two (16 males) participants drinking more than 21 units of alcohol per week were randomly allocated to undergo the experimental stress (based on the ‘Trier Social Stress’ Test) or the non-stress procedure before the alcohol cue exposure procedure, during which participants handled and smelled their preferred drink. Mood and saliva cortisol level changes were used as indices of the stress effects, while alcohol craving, skin conductance and alcohol consumption were the cue reactivity measures. RESULTS: Self ratings of anxiety and tension increased and cortisol levels remained high in the stress compared to the non-stress condition; no gender differences were found. Stress induced gender-specific effects with regard to skin conductance response and alcohol consumption measurements. Stressed females did not show an increase from baseline in the skin conductance response during the alcohol cue-exposure session, which was observed in the non-stressed females; they also consumed less alcohol than males under stress. CONCLUSION: Female participants respond less to alcohol-related cues when in a negative mood state. Such a finding suggests that females when in a negative mood may be less sensitive to positive incentive processes mediating cue reactivity compared to males.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Mar 8

Hypnotherapy and cognitive behaviour therapy of acute stress disorder: A 3-year follow-up.
Bryant RA, Moulds ML, Nixon RD, Mastrodomenico J, Felmingham K, Hopwood S., School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052, Sydney, Australia.

The long-term benefits of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for trauma survivors with acute stress disorder were investigated by assessing patients 3 years after treatment. Civilian trauma survivors (n=87) were randomly allocated to six sessions of CBT, CBT combined with hypnosis, or supportive counselling (SC), 69 completed treatment, and 53 were assessed 2 years post-treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. In terms of treatment completers, 2 CBT patients (10%), 4 CBT/hypnosis patients (22%), and 10 SC patients (63%) met PTSD criteria at 2-years follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that 12 CBT patients (36%), 14 CBT/hypnosis patients (46%), and 16 SC patients (67%) met PTSD criteria at 2-year follow-up. Patients who received CBT and CBT/hypnosis reported less re-experiencing and less avoidance symptoms than patients who received SC. These findings point to the long-term benefits of early provision of CBT in the initial month after trauma.
Behav Res Ther. 2005 Dec 17

Hypnotic treatment of PTSD in children who have complicated bereavement.
Iglesias A, Iglesias A., PhDALEX@aol.com

Although conceptualized as a normal reaction to loss and not classified as a mental disorder, grief can be considered a focus of treatment. When grief complicates and becomes pathological by virtue of its duration, intensity, and absence or by bizarre or somatic manifestation, a psychiatric diagnosis is in order. Childhood PTSD in Complicated Bereavement is a condition derived from the loss of a loved one when the nature of death is occasioned through traumatic means. The traumatic nature of the loss engenders trauma symptoms, which impinge on the child’s normal grieving process and his/ her ability to negotiate the normal grieving system. The 2 cases presented herein constitute single session treatment with clinical hypnosis of PTSD, a result of the traumatic loss of the paternal figures. The setting in which these cases took place was rural Guatemala. Treatment consisted of single session hypnosis with the Hypnotic Trauma Narrative, a tool designed to address the symptomatology of PTSD. Follow-up a week later and telephone follow-up 2 months later demonstrated the resolution of traumatic manifestations and the spontaneous beginning of the normal grief process.
Am J Clin Hypn. 2005 Oct-2006 Jan;48(2-3):183-9

Hypnosis for Pain Relief

A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Brief Hypnosis Intervention to Control Side Effects in Breast Surgery Patients

Behavioral Intervention for Cancer Treatment Side Effects

Contanch P, Hockenberry M, Herman S. Self-Hypnosis as antiemetic therapy in children receiving chemotherapy. Oncology Nursing Forum 12:4;41-6, 1985.

Randomized Controlled Trial.

Results: 20 children randomized to standard protocol or self-hypnosis/relaxation experimental group. In the experimental group there was a statistically significant decrease in intensity and severity of nausea and vomiting, and a significant increase in oral intake post chemotherapy.

Hawkins P, Liossi C, Ewart B et al. Hypnotherapy for control of anticipatory nausea and vomiting in children with cancer: preliminary findings. Psycho-Oncology 4:101-6, 1995

Randomized Controlled Trial.

Results: In 30 patients, hypnosis was found to relieve anticipatory nausea and vomiting significantly better, as compared with therapist contact and no therapy (control group).

Jacknow D, Tschann J, Link M et al. Hypnosis in the prevention of chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting in children: a prospective study. J Dev Beh Pediatr 15:258-64, 1994.

Randomized Controlled Trial, single blinded.

Results: Twenty patients receiving chemotherapy were randomized to two groups, one receiving hypnosis, the other a control. The study observed the effectiveness of hypnosis in decreasing antiemetic medication and the effectiveness in alleviating the side effects of nausea and vomiting. The patients receiving hypnosis took less antiemetic medication in both the first course chemotherapy (P <.04) and the second course (P <.02).

Redd W, Andresen G, Minagawa R. Hypnotic control of anticipatory emesis in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 50:14-9, 1982.

Single group intervention.

Results: Patients were trained in hypnosis and imagery to control anticipatory nausea and vomiting. They all reported decreases in nausea/vomiting before and during chemotherapy sessions.

Zeltzer L, Kellerman J, Ellenberg L, Dash J. Hypnosis for reduction of vomiting associated with chemotherapy and disease in adolescents with cancer. Journal of Adolescent Health Care 4(2):77-84, 1983.

Single group intervention.

Results: Hypnosis was found to be effective in a group of adolescents undergoing treatment for cancer.

Zeltzer L, LeBaron S, Zeltzer P. The effectiveness of behavioral intervention for reduction of nausea and vomiting in children and adolescents receiving chemotherapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2:6;683-90, 1984.

Controlled trial.

Results: 19 patients received hypnosis or counseling. Both interventions resulted in a decrease in nausea and vomiting.

Hypnosis for Pain & Anxiety

Hawkins P, Liossi C, Ewart B, Hatira P. Hypnosis in the Alleviation of Procedure Related Pain and Distress in Paediatric Oncolgy Patients. Contemporary Hypnosis 15(4): 199-207, 1998.

Results: In a randomized, controlled trial 30 children with leukemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (6 to 16 years old) undergoing routine lumbar punctures were randomized to hypnosis using direct suggestions versus to hypnosis using indirect suggestions. The effect of hypnosis on pain and anxiety was reported. Pain and anxiety were measured by self reports and by independent observers. Both direct and indirect hypnosis significantly decreased self reports of pain and anxiety over time (p < 0.001, p < 0.001). Both styles of hypnosis also significantly decreased observers’ reports of pain and anxiety (p < 0.001). Pain and anxiety were also significantly related to the level of the subject’s hypnotizability (p < 0.001, p < 0.001).

Liossi, C., Hatira, P. Clinical hypnosis versus cognitive behavioral training for pain management with pediatric cancer patients undergoing bone marrow aspirations. The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. 47 (2): 104-116. 1999.

Results: A randomized, controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of clinical hypnosis versus cognitive behavioral coping (CB) in reducing pain and distress in 30 pediatric patients (5 to 15y) undergoing bone marrow aspirations. Patients were randomized to receive hypnosis, cognitive behavioral coping or no intervention. Both hypnosis and CB were effective in reducing subjects’ pain, (p = 0.0001, p = 0.002), anxiety (p = 0.0001, p= 0.0056), and observed distress (p = 0.0001, p = 0.003) compared to controls. Hypnosis was more effective than CB in reducing subjects’ anxiety and distress (p = 0.0002, p = 0.0025).

Harper G. A developmentally sensitive approach to clinical hypnosis for chronically and terminally ill adolescents. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 42(1):50-60, 1999.

Case Series

Results: This paper discusses the technique of hypnosis and why it can help adolescents who are ill. Several case reports are presented. One described a teenager with a brain tumor who reported that hypnosis helped with pain relief and that when he was taught self-hypnosis he gained a sense of control over his life.

Hockenberry M, Bologna-Vaughan S. Relaxation techniques in children with cancer: the nurse’s role. J Assoc Pediatr Oncol Nursing 5:1-2;7-11, 1988.

Single group intervention.

Results: 15 children with cancer underwent relaxation training, including hypnosis. This study suggested that coping with painful procedures was better with the training.

Katz E, Kellerman J, Ellenberg L. Hypnosis in the reduction of acute pain and distress in children with cancer. J Pediatr Psychol 12:379-94, 1987

Observational, longitudinal study.

Results: In 36 patients with ALL, both hypnosis and play therapy reduced pain and distress during aversive medical procedures.

Kuttner K. Favorite stories: a hypnotic pain-reduction technique for children in acute pain. Am J Clin Hypn 30:289-95, 1988

Controlled trial.

Results: The group that received hypnotic suggestion and reframing had more therapeutic benefit than standard treatment or distraction techniques.

Kuttner L, Bowman M, Teasdale M. Psychological treatment of distress, pain, and anxiety for young children with cancer. J Dev Behav Pediatr 9:374-82, 1988.

Randomized Controlled Trial.

Results: 30 leukemia patients were randomized to standard treatment vs. hypnotic/imaginative involvement vs distraction during bone marrow aspirations. For the younger children hypnosis/imaginative involvement reduced stress the best. For older kids, both distraction and hypnosis/imagery reduced pain and anxiety.on in distress and anxiety associated with lumbar punctures, bone marrow aspirations, and chemotherapy.

Hilgard J, LeBaron S. Relief of anxiety and pain in children and adolescents with cancer: quantitative measures and clinical observations. Int J Clin Hypnosis 30:417-22, 1982

Single group intervention.

Results: 24 children undergoing bone marrow aspirations were successful in reducing self-reported pain below baseline levels with hypnosis.

Miller, J.A. Hypnosis in a boy with leukemia. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 22: 231-235, 1980.

Case Study

Results: A case history of a 9-year old boy with ALL who had tremendous anxiety over his illness. His anxiety interfered with treatment and his social interactions upon during treatment and upon entering remission. The hypnosis was successful in helping the 9-year old boy cope with his anxiety.

Valente, S.M. Using hypnosis with children for pain management. Oncology Nursing Forum. 18: 699-704, 1991.

Review Paper

Results: Discusses the research, misconceptions, strategies, and potential contraindications in managing pain in children with cancer with hypnosis.

Hockenberry-Eaton M, Contach P. Evaluation of a child’s perceived self-competence during treatment for cancer. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing 6:3;55-62, 1989.

Randomized Controlled Trial.

Results: 22 children were assigned to self-hypnosis or standard care group. The self-hypnosis group maintained a higher level of self-competence ratings during treatment than did the control group.

Wall V, Womack W. Hypnotic versus active cognitive strategies for aleviation of procedural distress in pediatric oncology patients. Am J Clin Hypn 31:181-91, 1989

Observational study.

Results: In 20 patients the pain during bone marrow aspirations or lumbar punctures was reduced in both the hypnotic group and the cognitive group. Neither technique reduced anxiety though.

Zeltzer L, LeBaron S. Hypnosis and nonhypnotic techniques for reduction of pain and anxiety during painful procedures in children and adolescents with cancer. The Journal of Pediatrics 101:1032-1035, 1982.

Randomized trial.

Results: Patients were randomized to two groups, one receiving hypnotic therapy and the control group receiving nonhypnotic behavioral therapy in efforts to help reduce the pain and anxiety in 27 children undergoing bone marrow aspirations and 22 children undergoing lumbar punctures. In the children undergoing bone marrow aspirations, a significant decrease in pain in the hypnotic group (P<0.001) versus the nonhypnotic group (P<0.01) was reported. Children undergoing lumbar punctures also incurred less pain in the group receiving the hypnosis (P<0.001). Anxiety was decreased more in both groups receiving hypnosis versus controls. (P values in the bone marrow aspiration and lumbar punctures were P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively.)

Zeltzer, LK, Dolgin, MJ, LeBaron, S, LeBaron, C. A Randomized, Controlled Study of Behavioral Intervention for Chemotherapy Distress in Children with Cancer. Pediatrics. 88(1):34-42, 1991.

Fifty-four children and adolescents with various types of cancer were randomized to either hypnosis, non-hypnotic/distraction therapy, or placebo to assess the effect on chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting. Subjects in the hypnosis group and non-hypnotic/distraction therapy group had significantly shorter duration of nausea. The hypnosis group also had shorter duration of vomiting. Overall trends found subjects in the hypnosis group had a general improvement of symptoms without decline; whereas, subjects in the control group had worsened symptoms.

Hypnosis- Diabetes

A hypnotherapeutic approach to the improvement of compliance in adolescent diabetics.
Ratner H, Gross L, Casas J, Castells S.

State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center.

Adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) have a rate of noncompliance in our clinic of approximately 20% despite all of the usual measures aimed at securing compliance. Seven IDDM patients ranging in age from 11 to 19 years were managed in our clinic with all of our usual modalities, but all remained in long-term poor control during the 6 months immediately prior to the study. To ensure that each patient would serve as his/her own control, no changes were made in his/her management other than the addition of hypnosis. Six of the seven patients were followed for more than 6 months. No changes were made in insulin, diet, or exercise as prescribed. Posttreatment, the average HgbA1C dropped from 13.2% to 9.7%, and the average fasting blood sugar from 426 mg/dl to 149 mg/dl, values which are consistent with good compliance.
PMID: 2296916 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]


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